Earthquake Resistant Structure Technology
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Articles/FAQ

Earthquakes: Reasons & Remedies

Inventor Mahesh Yashraj has seen the devastating earthquakes at Killari-Latur-Usmanabad, Kutch-Gujarat and Kathmandu-Nepal. The scary sights of the debris and the collapsed buildings, the dead and disfigured bodies of the people that lay scattered and the sight of the people who got crushed and died due to the earthquakes gives shudders.

Fortunately the Inventor is working in Construction field for last 37 years; and studying intently the occurrences of earthquakes all over the world. It has been observed that the grave destruction does not happen only due to the earthquakes but mainly due to the buildings that collapse and stimulates further destruction.

As an experienced and expert professional in the field of construction, the Inventor aimed to find a solution to the problem of building/structure collapse. He began with study and research. One Architect helped him in this endeavor.

By God’s grace the research succeeded and came up with the Technique called....
Earthquake Resistant Structure Technology [ERST]. The invention is then filed for the Patent application before the Controller of Patents of India and with WIPO [World Intellectual Property Organization]. WIPO published this invention on 1-6-2017.

Compare to all other technologies that are currently used in different parts of the world to reduce the damages due to the earthquakes, ERST is easier to use and implementation. It is technically flawless and much advantageous. Even a common man can understand this technique. Thanks to this research and technique, the destruction that is caused by the earthquakes will now reduce to a great extent. This Great NOBLE Invention by an Indian inventor will soon be applauded globally.

MISSION
To reduce the damages of the property and mainly the loss of human lives occurred due to the earthquakes worldwide.

No one can stop the earthquakes nor can anyone give its exact and very accurate estimation as to the date, day time and place of occurrence. So when the earthquakes happen, instead of just blaming it on the misfortune and God, we can try to reduce the amount of destruction by constructing the buildings with Earthquake Resistant Structure Technology.

People have various misconceptions about earthquakes. In order to clear the air and create awareness, We are writing and will be soon publishing a book ‘Earthquakes: Reasons and Remedies’.

Given below is the question-answer format are some of the important topics, covered in this book.
[1] Question: What are the misconceptions that common people have regarding to Earthquakes?
[2] Question: If there are Earthquakes happening in such large numbers then how have it not caused the destruction of earth or                                    how is earth not getting destroyed by such earthquakes?
[3] Question: Why do Earthquakes occur and what are its exact causes?
[4] Question: How many types/kinds of Earthquakes occurred? What are the different kinds?
[5] Question: How vulnerable is North India to a major Earthquake? Or is there really a possibility of major Earthquake hitting                                    Northern India? What are its likely reasons?
[6] Question: On what basis is the inference about the Earthquake hitting Northern India made?
[7] Question: Is this tension/friction really increasing and if yes, can it be evidenced?
[8] Question: What is your contribution as an Experienced Professional in construction Industry?
[9] Question: What is exactly ‘ERST’ research?
[10] Question: Just like the new constructions, can ‘ERST’ be used for new and old constructions as well? Can it be used to reduce                                  the damages of Pre-Fabricated and Wooden Houses, caused due to Earthquakes??
[11] Question: How can the higher costs of ERST are justified?
[12] Question: Is Mumbai-Thane-New Mumbai-Kalyan-Nasik-Pune-Nagpur Earthquake Prone???
[13] Question: What will be the damage if Earthquake of 6+ Richter scale occurred in Killari-Latur proximity again and in                                                  the Earthquake Prone Metro cities Mumbai-Thane-New Mumbai-Kalyan?
[1] Question: What are the misconceptions that common people have regarding to Earthquakes?
Answer: If a person is asked to quote how many Earthquakes happen on an average in one year; most of the people would answer in the range of 15-20-50. The maximum number that any rare person can come up with is 100. Usually no one estimates a number greater than this. However a reliable website in America which specializes in geological surveys records as high as 39,000 plus earthquakes within one year, along with all the relevant details of the Earthquake (place of occurrence, its latitude and longitude, date, time, intensity, epicenter i.e. point on the Earth’s surface vertically above the focus of an Earthquake).

The Earthquakes mentioned here are of the magnitude 1.5 Richter scale or above only.

​In short, if we take into account the other all Earthquakes of lesser magnitude, then there will be more than one lakh Earthquakes in just 365 days which comes to an average of 274 Earthquakes happening per day.
Pl’s click the link and confirm: www.earthquaketrack.com

[2] Question: If there are Earthquakes happening in such large numbers then how have it not caused the destruction of earth or how is earth not getting destroyed by such earthquakes?

Answer: Earthquakes that cause building collapse, loss of human life and other casualties are the Earthquakes which are of higher intensity i.e. magnitude of 6 Richter scale or more.


Approximately 140 to 150 Earthquakes (Image A) of this magnitude happen in every year all over the globe.
Though such Earthquake results in big losses to the life and property of the government and the citizens of that particular country; it doesn’t pose a threat to existence of earth nor will it lead to earth’s destruction. At places where Earthquake of magnitude 3-4 Richter scale was recorded, it was observed that the things in the house/building shake or tremble for a few seconds or so but there was no loss or damage as such.
​​​Click the link and confirm: www.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_earthquakes_in_2016

[3] Question: Why do Earthquakes occur and what are its exact causes?

Answer: The Earth consists of four concentric layers:

1) Inner core,
2) Outer core,
3) Upper Mantle and
4) Crust.
The outer layers i.e. Upper Mantle and Crust are called Tectonic Plates, which are in constant motion (Image B).

Research has proved that when the Earth was formed, initially it consisted of SEVEN BIG TECTONIC PLATES (Image C).

According to the Continental Drift Theory put forth by Alfred Wenger, the Earth’s continents which were once joined together gradually started moving apart over millions of years. It is very essential to highlight the importance of Continental Drift theory while studying in detail about Earthquakes and its causes.

If we take into account the various minor-micro plates, the number of Tectonic Plates has currently reached to 86. This number will increase in future mainly due to the constant motion of the Tectonic Plates and the continuous collision and interaction that result in the movement of plates. These 7 big plates have started pulling apart or drifting away. Movement of this Tectonic Plates results in Earthquakes and also creating another minor-micro plates, which increases the boundaries of plates (creating fault lines). This drifting apart of plates exists today and would even continue in future. The threat of Earthquake increases with this drifting.

[4] Question: How many types/kinds of Earthquakes occurred? What are the different kinds?
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Image D: Transform Fault/Boundary
image-17152-5_Image_E.jpg
Image E: Divergent Boundary
image-17153-6_Image_F.jpg
Image F: Convergent Boundary
Answer: There are three types of Earthquakes, depending on the plate movements that occur beneath the Earth's surface.

[1] Transform Fault/Boundary: Two adjacent Tectonic Plates slide past one another. The fracture zone that forms a transform plate boundary is known as a transform fault. Most transform faults are found in the ocean basin and connect offsets in the mid-ocean ridges. (Image D)

[2] Divergent Boundary: (Also known as a constructive boundary or an extensional boundary) is a linear feature that exists between two tectonic plates that are moving away from each other. (Image E)

[3] Convergent Boundary: A tectonic boundary where two plates are moving toward each other. If the two plates are of equal density, they usually push up against each other, forming a mountain chain. If they are of unequal density, one plate usually sinks beneath the other in a subduction zone. (Image F).

Delhi and total North India is situated at the boundary of two big Tectonic Plates; Eurasian Tectonic Plate [Upper Side] and Indo-Australian Tectonic Plate [Lower Side] as shown in Image L below.

Researchers and experts have noted one very crucial thing, in last few years the Indo-Australian plate is marching with full force from below the Eurasian plate (See Images: Shown below the Image L and Image J) and it is only due to this that the height of Himalayas is increasing by minimum 4 inch every year. This is Convergent Boundary type.

[5] Question: How vulnerable is North India to a major Earthquake? Or is there really a possibility of major Earthquake hitting Northern India? What are its likely reasons?

Answer: Yes. Various geologists, individual researchers, and research organizations have been giving warnings about big catastrophe, Earthquake of magnitude of 8 or greater on Richter scale which might strike Himalayas and is likely to cause great destruction in Northern India. We fear that this forecast might turn true.
The Northern India including New Delhi is situated on the fault lines of 2 major/big Tectonic Plates i.e. Eurasian (Europe + Asia 67,800,000 square kilometers) and Indo-Australian (Indian + Australian 57,900,000 square kilometers). The land area of India is 3,287,259 sq. kms.

Before the existence of Himalayas, there was sea named "Tethys Sea" in its place. The Himalayan mountain range was formed as a result of the collision between the Eurasian and Indo-Australian Tectonic Plates which began 50 million years ago. One can now envisage the tremendous amount of energy that might have been generated during the formation of Himalayas. Now if such a kind of collision were to occur again [which is predicted by various geologists and researchers] we can imagine the extent of havoc and destruction it might create in the area.

There is a possibility of these 2 big Tectonic Plates colliding again. This will lead to a massive earthquake of 8-8.5 Richter scale. Regions around Himalayas and other parts of India like Delhi and other Northern Indian states such as Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Sikkim, West Bengal, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram, Manipur might feel strong tremors and Earthquake measuring 6-6.5 Richter scale is feared.

Such an Earthquake will cause buildings to collapse and will further result in great loss to life and property in these regions. We must always remember the old saying, ‘Prevention is better than cure.’

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Image G
image-17160-8_Image_H.jpg
Image H
image-17167-9_Image_I.w640.jpg
Image I
[6] Question: On what basis is the inference about the Earthquake hitting Northern India made?
Answer: Refer to the Images G, H and I. In Image G (dated 12-11-2016) In the circle, the Indo-Australian plate and the Earthquakes that occurred on its fault lines are shown. In the same circle, we can also see the map of India. The Earthquakes that occurred on fault line of Indo-Australian plate are highlighted with green arrows and can be seen in the right corner of the image. On the left hand side corner where there are Northern parts of India, we can see the friction that’s occurring on the fault lines of the plates.

The Geologists and Researchers have been studying this phenomenon. In short, tremendous tension/friction has been created in the bowels of the earth in Himalaya (refer to the blue arrows in Image H dated 13-11-2016) and this friction is increasing day by day. On the day the mother earth is unable to bear this friction, which is created between these two Tectonic Plates. Himalayan region will be hit by a massive earthquake.

[7] Question: Is this tension/friction really increasing and if yes, can it be evidenced?

Answer: Now let us look at Image I (screenshot shown above) by USGS institution which is taken on 28-1-2017. Depicts the number of Earthquakes happened in span of one month i.e. in January 2017.

On a careful observation, one can come to know about the Earthquakes that have occurred within the span of one month on the Indo-Australian plate in the regions of Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and Solomon Island.

It is evidently seen that due to these Earthquakes that particular part of Indo-Australian plate is disturbed to a great extent. The friction/tension that is created on the Indo-Australian plate due to this disturbance will soon be reflected on the other end of the plate boundary i.e. Delhi and Northern India. Such inferences play a very important role. Though the exact day, time and place of the earthquake cannot be told, the possibility of massive Earthquake hitting northern India in near future cannot be ignored.

Researchers and Experts have noted one very crucial thing, in last few years the Indo-Australian plate is marching with full force from below the Eurasian plate (Image J) and it is only due to this that the height of Himalaya is increasing by minimum 4 inch every year.

In the event of an Earthquake, the epicenter will suffer major damage and other areas which are away from epicenter will be relatively less damage. If Earthquake of 8-8.5 Richter scale hits Himalayas, then its effects can be seen even in Nepal, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Bangladesh, Tibet, China, Pakistan and Delhi and other North Indian regions will be severely affected. Tremors of 6-6.5 Richter scale will be probably felt in New Delhi, Northern India, Nepal and Bangladesh.

However it is impossible to know where exactly will the epicenter be. With regards to this, Delhi and Northern Region in India are in vulnerable situation. Considering this all, as a preventive measure the residential and all kind of Buildings and structures should be constructed using Earthquake Resistant Structure Technology.
[8] Question: What is your contribution as an Experienced Professional in construction Industry?

Answer: We are guiding people by writing various articles and books and organizing various Seminars, Animation Film and Power Point Presentations etc. This informative website is created for the same reason. We wish to create more awareness amongst people staying in Earthquake Prone Zones and look forward to the social-service trusts, social workers and other organizations which can invite us or give us a platform for this purpose.

We aim to save the mankind from the probable destruction and for this purpose we will propagate and spread ‘ERST’ research of which we are the pioneers.

[9] Question: What is exactly ‘ERST’ research?
Answer: The grave destruction does not happen actually directly due to the Earthquakes but due to the buildings that collapse and stimulates further destruction. The Inventor is working in Construction field. As an expert and experienced person in the field of construction, the Inventor aimed to find a solution to the problem of building collapse. Inventor began with research and study.

By God’s grace the research succeeded and came up with the Technique called....
"Earthquake Resistant Structure Technology" [ERST]. The invention is then filed for the Patent application before the Controller of Patents of India and with WIPO [World Intellectual Property Organization]. WIPO published this invention on 1-6-2017.

Compare to all other technologies that are currently used in different parts of the world to reduce the damages due to the Earthquakes, ERST is easier to use and implementation. It is technically flawless and much advantageous.

MISSION
To reduce the damages of the property and mainly loss of human lives occurred due to the Earthquakes Worldwide.

No one can stop the Earthquakes nor can anyone give its exact and very accurate estimation as to the date, day time and place of occurrence. So when the Earthquakes happen, instead of just blaming it on the misfortune and God, we can try to reduce the amount of destruction by constructing the buildings with Earthquake Resistant Structure Technology.

A lot of importance is given to research on techniques to increase the structural strength of the buildings so that they won’t easily collapse due to the impact of Earthquake. If the Earthquake is a massive one and lot of negative energy is created then only the structure would be somewhat damaged.

The Major advantage of ERST research is that even though the building sways during the Earthquake, the walls will not give way and will stay strong and rooted in its place and in this way the structure will not only be saved but its strength will also increase.

Even though the building is partially damaged by the big Earthquake, the ERST research methodology will help reduce the loss of life and property. When a building collapses a big pit kind of thing, debris gets created under which people get crushed and die. This mechanism will help to avert such a kind of situation. Many hollow spaces/pockets/Cavities will be formed/created.

In short the invention is done to reduce the loss of life and property due to Earthquakes and Storms.

ERST invention is filed for PATENT in India and WIPO and we desire to file and register it in all the countries worldwide. Since our filed Invention is published by WIPO, if anybody means any person, company, institution, organization wants or desires to use our ERST Invention in any way, partially or in any kind or form then to take written permission of Inventor Mahesh Yashraj [M.D., YashRaj Infrastructures Pvt Ltd] is MANDATORY.

Any person, company, institution, organization if found using or used our ERST Invention in any way, partially or in any kind or any form without written permission and License to use from Inventor Mahesh Yashraj, then APPROPRIATE LEGAL ACTION will taken against them.
Please be noted.

[10] Question: Just like the new constructions, can ‘ERST’ be used for new and old constructions as well? Can it be used to reduce the damages of Pre-Fabricated and Wooden Houses, caused due to Earthquakes??

Answer: Yes. ERST can be used for the new constructions as well as for old buildings. It is invented in such a way that it is beneficial to all kind of new as well as old structures.

Pre-Fabricated and Wooden Houses
See the Images and photographs below showing damages of Pre-Fabricated Houses and Wooden Houses due to the Earthquakes and Storms.
image-17204-Prefabricated_Houses_damaged_due_to_EQ.w640.jpg
Pre-Fabricated and Wooden Houses Damaged due to the Earthquakes and Storms
In Gallery page the photographs and images of the damages of Pre-fabricate houses and wooden houses due to Earthquakes and Storms are also shown.

We assure, USE of "Earthquake Resistant Structure Technology" in Prefabricated Technology Houses and Wooden Houses will definitely increase the strength of the total structures at great extent.
 
[11] Question: How can the higher costs of ERST are justified?

It is true that the construction cost increases at little extent. But the consumer should think wisely about the effects and the possible harm to the life and property of their families, that might happen because of Earthquake and take conscious decision and invest properly for their own benefit in Earthquake Resistant Structure Technology.

Everyone including the Developers, Construction Professionals as well as the Consumers will be benefitted by the use of ERST. We can demonstrate or explain this through a face-to-face session. It has been observed that the consumers are willing to bear the extra cost in order to prevent injury to his/her family and also to avoid damage to the property. We have also been able to convince the Developers about the advantages of this technique which not only guarantees safety but is also financially beneficial for them and helps them to establish their “BRAND”.

In case of Pre-fabricated and Wooden Houses, We have also been able to convince the Manufacturers and Applicators the advantages of ERST, which not only guarantees safety but is also helps them to establish their “BRAND”.

[12] Question: Is Mumbai-Thane-New Mumbai-Kalyan-Nasik-Pune-Nagpur Earthquake Prone???
image-17176-11_Image_k.jpg
Image K
Answer: Prof. V. Subramanyan [Retired professor of Geology, IIT, Mumbai] had spoken about Mumbai-Thane-Kalyan Earthquake FAULT in the session on ‘Disaster Management’ at 102nd Science Congress.
​Link: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/…/articlesh…/45786395.cms]

Mumbai-Thane-Kalyan and the entire belt adjoining the creek in Maharashtra, India is Earthquake Prone. In this region there exists FAULT and hence many Experts in Geological Science predicting probability of MAJOR EARTHQUAKE hitting these Metro Cities. If it will happen then it is not even possible to imagine the kind of loss and damage it might lead to. Hence in Metro Cities, there is a need of constructing buildings with special Earthquake Resistant Structure Technology.People have various misconceptions about probability of earthquakes in Mumbai-Thane-Kalyan region. In order to clear the air and create awareness, giving important information which is covered in our book.

[13] Question: What will be the damage if Earthquake of 6+ Richter scale occured in Killari-Latur 
proximitry again and in the Earthquake Prone Metro cities Mumbai-Thane-New Mumbai-Kalyan?
Answer: Many Architects and Structural Engineers have accepting the fact of FAULT and welcomed our approach. Some Structural Engineers have some inhibitions due to their inadequate information. They opined that the buildings which are constructed using RCC technique are already earthquake resistant then what is the need of specially designed ‘ERST’ and what purpose will it serve?

We are trying our best to give a justified explanation and change their perception.
We agree to them but in a very basic and limited sense. The conventional RCC technique makes use of technology which makes the buildings earthquake resistant. It is true that the buildings in Killari-Latur and even Mumbai-Thane-Kalyan and even other parts of the world that are constructed using conventional RCC technique are Earthquake resistant. But the question is up to what extent and strength they are designed and constructed???

Means, what strength of earthquake magnitude can these designed buildings sustain? How is all this determined?
Let us see….​
NDMA [National Disaster Management Authority] aims to study and assess the emergency situation and disasters and accordingly formulate and implement policies. With the help of global research, this institute declares seismic zones [Earthquake Prone] areas in the states and cities all over India. Based on these declarations, the buildings are designed and constructed by estimating the possible magnitude of earthquakes that might hit those areas/cities.

NDMA declares the states and cities where there is a possibility of Earthquakes. The classification of areas according to the zones and probable magnitude of Earthquakes, the intensity of tremors and its effects which is done by Wikipedia can be viewed on this website… https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richter_magnitude_scale
MagnitudeTypical Maximum
Modified Mercalli Intensity
1.0 - 3.0I
3.0 - 3.9II - III
4.0 - 4.9IV - V
5.0 - 5.9VI - VII
6.0 - 6.9VII - VIII
7.0 and higherVIII or higher
During the declaration pertaining the Earthquake Prone Zones from NDMA, Lots of guesswork and probabilities are involved. So even if there is an inference about a particular zone, it cannot be taken as a final word. So even if the estimate is of 3 to 3.9 Richter scale Earthquakes in Zone III, the possibility of Earthquake 6 or more Richter scale cannot be ignored. Records show that such situations in Killari-Latur and even in Koyna it happened in past. 
National Disaster Management Authority [NDMA] has declared the proximity and cities kaillari-Latur and the Metro cities Mumbai-Thane-NewMumbai-Kalyan-Bhiwandi-Nasik-Pune and Nagpur as Zone III areas which mean that there is a possibility that these areas can experience Earthquake of maximum 3 to 3.9 Richter Scale Magnitude.

Based on this estimation, in Zone III the buildings designed and constructed using RCC, which can sustain Earthquake of magnitude 3 to 3.9 Richter scale only in these zones.



http://www.indiaspend.com/cover-story/81-townscities-added-to-indias-earthquake-prone-list-37313

kaillari-Latur
Yet, in 1993 the Earthquake that hit Killari-Latur-Usmanabad was of Magnitude 6.2 Richter scale. The buildings in these proximity which were designed to sustain the Earthquake of magnitude 3 to 3.9 Richter scale could not sustain for 6.2 Richter Magnitude. The buildings collapsed leading to vast destruction and great loss of human life.














In the small village of Killari which had population of 40,000, approximately 10,000 people died and 30,000 were gravely injured. The whole village was destroyed completely; About 53,000 houses in the proximity gets damaged. This was a huge loss not only for the villagers and Maharashtra but for the entire nation.

Important thing pertaining Earthquakes is that, once 6+ Richter scale Earthquake occurs in a specific zone, then there is again high probability of occurrence of equivalent magnitude earthquake. Yet, NDMA kept Killari-Latur in Zone III, due to which till today the buildings in the proximity are designed and constructed which will sustain only 3 to 3.9 Richter scale Earthquakes. Unfortunately if again earthquake of 6+ Richter scale will occur in the proximity then for any damages and loss of human lives, NDMA will be held responsible. Hence NDMA should declare Killari-Latur proximity as zone VII [at least 6 Richter Scale] and make mandatory to design and construct the buildings to sustain for this zone strength i.e. at least 6 Richter Scale Magnitude. It is a total responsibility of NDMA.

Mumbai-Thane-New Mumbai-Kalyan-Bhiwandi-Nasik-Pune-Nagpur
With this background and past experience, it would be completely wrong to assume that in the Metro cities like Mumbai-Thane-New Mumbai-Kalyan-Bhiwandi-Nasik-Pune-Nagpur even if there is an Earthquake it would be only of 3 to 3.9 Richter scale magnitude and not of a greater magnitude. Because in the proximity of these Metro cities especially Mumbai-Thane-New Mumbai-Kalyan there is FAULT already exists in creek area.
Various Geological Experts have been giving warnings that these Metro Cities might be hit big Earthquake of 6 Richter scale or more in future. It will be wrong and dangerous to ignore these warnings.

Since NDMA also declared Mumbai-Thane-New Mumbai-Kalyan in Zone III, the  buildings in these proximity are designed to sustain 3 to 3.9 Richter scale magnitudes Earthquakes only. If we consider the difference between the impacts of 3.9 Richter Scale magnitude and 6 Richter Scale magnitude Earthquakes, it is minimum 100 times stronger. 6 Richer Scale magnitude Earthquake impact is considered equivalent to one atom bomb impact. The buildings in the proximity which were designed to sustain the Earthquake of magnitude 3 to 3.9 Richter scale could not sustain for 6.2 Richter Magnitude surely.

Unfortunately as per Experts prediction if the Earthquake of 6+ Richter scale will occur in Mumbai-Thane-New Mumbai-Kalyan proximity, then the buildings designed to sustain 3 to 3.9 Richter scale only could not sustain for 6.2 Richter Magnitude Earthquake, resulted in buildings collapse leading to vast destruction and fearsome loss of human lives. It is not even possible to imagine the kind of loss and damage it might lead to.

To avoid these damages of property of citizens and loss of Human Lives, NDMA should declare the Metro Cities Mumbai-Thane-New Mumbai-Kalyan and the proximity as zone VII [atleast 6 Richter Scale] immediately and make mandatory to design and construct the buildings to sustain for at least 6 Richter Scale Magnitude.
It is a total responsibility of NDMA.

No one can stop the Earthquakes nor can anyone give its exact estimation as to the date, time & place.  When Earthquakes happen, we blame misfortune and God. Instead of that by precautionary measures, we must try in advance to reduce the amount of destruction. To reduce the collapse of buildings, NDMA should declare some cities/areas and the proximity as EQ Zone VII and should make mandatory to design and construct the buildings to sustain for at least 6 Richter Scale Magnitude Earthquakes. It is a total responsibility of NDMA.
© Mahesh Yashraj.

MISSION: To reduce the damages occurred due to earthquakes and minimize the loss of human lives.
Our Objective is not to Create Fear and Panic,
But to Offer an info and Preventive Measures!
YashRaj Infrastructures Pvt Ltd